By National Research Council, Division on Earth and Life Studies, Environment and Resources Commission on Geosciences, Ocean Studies Board
This booklet describes the advance of ocean sciences during the last 50 years, highlighting the contributions of the nationwide technology beginning (NSF) to the field's development. a few of the people who participated within the intriguing discoveries in organic oceanography, chemical oceanography, actual oceanography, and marine geology and geophysics describe within the booklet how the discoveries have been made attainable by way of combos of insightful participants, new know-how, and at times, serendipity.
as well as describing the improvement of ocean technology, the ebook examines the institutional constructions and expertise that made the advances attainable and provides visions of the field's destiny. This e-book is the first-ever documentation of the heritage of NSFâ€™s department of Ocean Sciences, how the constitution of the department advanced to its current shape, and the people who were answerable for ocean sciences at NSF as â€œrotatorsâ€ and profession employees over the last 50 years.
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Extra resources for 50 Years of Ocean Discovery: National Science Foundation 1950-2000
K. Van Keuren kindly allowed use of his unpublished paper on the history of the Mohole Project. W. Hay made constructive suggestions for improvement of an earlier draft of the manuscript. I. Jones. 1981. A new global geology: Appendix III: report on Cruise LOCO 6301 with Drilling Vessel Submarex (a reprinting of the report made to NSF). Pp. 1721-1723 in C. ), The Sea, volume 7: The Oceanic Lithosphere. John Wiley, New York. S. 1964. Mohole: The project that went awry. Science 143:115-119. , and 29 others.
Cores from sedimentary strata of the upper plate showed strong evidence of tectonic kneading of sediments in the accretionary prism and also the presence of fluid escape channels carrying waters squeezed from the deforming sediments upward to the seafloor. Several transects across the entire active margin complex (trench, forearc, volcanic arc, backarc basin, and remnant arc) have documented not only the materials in this system, but the timing and rates of development in them as well as the contrasting deformational styles in zones with thickly sedimented compared to near-barren trenches.
The AMSOC proposal gave three possible types of drill sites: on a continent, on an oceanic atoll, and on the deep seafloor. The seafloor option prevailed, and for this a dynamically positioned, floating rig was deemed most feasible. The hardware part of the Mohole project got underway with some testing to see if a drill vessel could hold position in deep water during drilling, using a dynamic positioning system. AMSOC chartered an industry vessel, CUSS-I, which, after some preliminary tests in soft sediments of a Neogene turbidite basin in waters about 1,000 m deep west of San Diego, then drilled a hole 183 m deep in 3,570 m of water off the Mexican island of Guadalupe.
50 Years of Ocean Discovery: National Science Foundation 1950-2000 by National Research Council, Division on Earth and Life Studies, Environment and Resources Commission on Geosciences, Ocean Studies Board
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