By Bill Branch
Pocket-sized identity consultant to 244 species of snakes and different reptiles present in Southern Africa. each one species account presents a full-color photo, textual content describing key identity good points, symbols depicting endangered and venomous, and a distribution map.
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Extra resources for A Photographic Guide to Snakes and Other Reptiles of Southern Africa
Activation of the transcription factor nuclear regulatory factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) is an important event in the expression of TNFalpah and iNOS. Previous studies demonstrate that cellular hypoxia (PO2 less than 40 torr) elicits an increase in release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) from mitochondria, which then activate transcription factors such as Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1 (HIF-1). This project will test the hypothesis that these ROS produced during hypoxia amplify the response to sepsis by independently activating NF-kappaB, thereby augmenting the TNFa and iNOS expression.
Because intact myofibrils are not degraded by the proteasome, it is possible that actin and myosin are dissociated from the myofibrils before they are ubiquitinated and degraded by the proteasome. We will test the hypotheses: 1) sepsis results in glucocorticoid-mediated calcium/calpain-dependent Z-band disintegration and release of myofilaments in skeletal muscle; 2) sepsis results in increased N-end rule pathway-dependent ubiquitination and breakdown of muscle proteins and upregulated expression and activity of the ubiquitin- conjugating enzyme E2/14k and ubiquitin ligase E3alpha; 3) sepsis- induced muscle cachexia can be inhibited by proteasome blocker in vivo; 4) muscle cachexia in patients with sepsis is associated with increased expression and activity of calpains, release of myofilaments and upregulated protein breakdown in the N-end rule pathway.
2) Define the Mechanism of MIF Signal Transduction. Our working hypothesis is that CD74 transduces MIF signals by recruiting an additional protein(s) into the signaling complex. 3) Determine the Biological Significance of the MIF-CD74 Interaction. Our working hypothesis is that anti-CD74 mAb and soluble CD74 protein (sCD74) will protect mice from lethal septic shock. The proposed research is innovative because it capitalizes on two recent and potentially unifying findings, a polymorphism in the M/fgene that affects its level of expression, and a cell surface protein (CD74) that mediates MIF signal transduction.
A Photographic Guide to Snakes and Other Reptiles of Southern Africa by Bill Branch
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