By John F. O'Hanlon
Within the decade and a part because the e-book of the second one version of A User?s advisor to hoover know-how there were many vital advances within the box, together with spinning rotor gauges, dry mechanical pumps, magnetically levitated faster pumps, and ultraclean process designs. those, in addition to better cleansing and meeting recommendations have made contamination-free production a fact. Designed to bridge the space in either wisdom and coaching among designers and finish clients of vacuum apparatus, the 3rd version bargains a realistic viewpoint on today?s vacuum know-how. With a spotlight at the operation, realizing, and choice of kit for commercial methods utilized in semiconductor, optics, packaging, and comparable coating applied sciences, A User?s advisor to hoover expertise, 3rd variation presents a close therapy of this significant box. whereas emphasizing the basics and relating major subject matters now not properly lined somewhere else, the textual content avoids subject matters no longer proper to the common person.
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Extra info for A User's Guide to Vacuum Technology
I. Siu, J. Vac. Sci. , 10,368 (1973). GAS PROPERTIES 24 PROBLEMS 2. I t State the assumptions that form the basis of kinetic theory. 2 Consider a 1-cm-diameter pipe 10 meters long. 01 Pa to lo5 Pa. (b) Knowing that the diffusion fiont moves as d2 oc Dt, estimate the time required for air to diffuse to the end of the 1O-meterlong pipe over the pressure range given in (a). 3 The diffbsion constant for gas (1) in gas (2), 0 1 2 describes how gas a gas of one molecular weight diffuses in the background of a second gas.
7 Viscous shear force between two plates at 22°C. GAS PROPERTIES 20 where the term in parentheses is referred to as the free-molecular viscosity. The free-molecular viscosity is directly proportional to the molecular density (n = P/kT) available to transfer momentum between the plates. It is valid in the region h >> y . 25) is related to the slip of molecules on the plate surfaces. For most vacuum conditions j3 1. 6 illustrates the magnitude of the viscous force caused by air at 22°C between two plates moving with a relative velocity of 100 m/s for three plate separations.
12 Molecular transmission probability of a parallel plate model. Reprinted with permission from Trans. 9th Nutl. Vuc. , J. D. Pinson and A. W. Peck. Copyright 1962, Macmillan, New York, p. 407. 5 5 2 2 3 3 3 3 1 2 3 4 5 GAS FLOW 44 Fig. 13 Series conductance of two elements: (a) the pipes are isolated by a large volume, and (b) the pipes are connected directly together. The pressure readings are those measured by a gauge in the gas stream pointing upstream and parallel to the flow direction. Exit and Entrance Effects The simple reciprocal rule does not work where we combine two conductances directly.
A User's Guide to Vacuum Technology by John F. O'Hanlon
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