February 10, 2018

New PDF release: Advances in Botanical Research, Vol. 14

By J. A. Callow

ISBN-10: 0120059142

ISBN-13: 9780120059140

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Enzymes, proteolytic or lipolytic, may well modify the HMG-CoA reductase or its membrane environment, thus changing its properties. The enhanced HMG-CoA reductase activity in sweet potato membranes in the presence of bovine serum albumin may be due to effects on such hydrolytic processes (Suzuki and Uritani, 1976). The serum albumin may act as an alternative substrate for proteolytic enzymes, thus relieving proteolytic degradation of HMG-CoA reductase, or as a protein capable of binding free fatty acids of endogenous origin or formed by the action of lipolytic enzymes.

In the main isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway, these enzymes produce all-trans prenyl diphosphates. Isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase catalyses the isomerization of IPP and DMAPP. , 1983a). , 1984). , 1984). 0 in the presence of 2 m Mg2+. ~ The K , value of the cotton root enzyme for IPP was ~ M and 2 . 2 lo-’ ~ M for two forms 7 . 4 lops ~ M,similar to values of 4 . , 1984). , 1984), suggesting that thiol groups are required for enzyme activity. Both forms of the pumpkin enzyme are inhibited by inorganic pyrophosphate, with approx- CONTROL OF ISOPRENOID BIOSYNTHESIS IN HIGHER PLANTS L C H z O P P 1 39 L C H z O P P dimethylollyl diphoaphate lsopentenyl diphwphate Y CHZOPP 1 geranyl diphosphate /LCHzOPP I PP fornesyl diphosphate geronylgeranyl diphosphate Fig.

In this article the experimental evidence for postulated regulatory mechanisms will be critically assessed and an attempt will be made to provide a conceptual framework for further experimentation. I. THE PATHWAYS OF ISOPRENOID METABOLISM The biosynthetic pathway for the formation of isoprenoid compounds in plants is based firmly on the pathway of sterol synthesis worked out over many years in animals and yeast. In plants, isoprenoid biosynthesis may be viewed as a main pathway from acetyl-CoA via mevalonate and isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) to long-chain prenyl diphosphates, with a large number of branch points leading to the individual isoprenoid compounds.

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Advances in Botanical Research, Vol. 14 by J. A. Callow

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