By Fernand Braudel
"In this concise book... Braudel summarizes the vast issues of his three-volume Civilisation materielle et capitalisme, 1400-1800 and provides his reflections at the historian's craft and at the nature of the historic imagination... Taken as a complete, the booklet is provocative and stimulating. sometimes, it rises to revelation whilst or 3 sentences of compressed yet really good prose strength us to re-evaluate the occasions of a complete century or the heritage of a continent." -- American old evaluation.
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Extra resources for Afterthoughts on Material Civilization and Capitalism (The Johns Hopkins Symposia in Comparative History)
By contrast, fairs throughout the Islamic world, although they existed, were not as numerous or as large as those in India. Such exceptions as the fairs of Mecca merely prove the rule. Indeed, Moslem cities, overdeveloped and overdynamic, stressed the mechanisms and instruments of the upper exchange level. Promissory notes circulated just as commonly as they did in India and went hand in hand with the use of cash. A whole network of credit and commercial organizations connected Moslem cities with the Far East.
Contrary to the European custom. a large number of cooked dishes -meatballs. grilled sheeps' heads. fritters. and cakes. The main commercial centers-which were a combination of markets. shops. and covered markets like those 30 AFTERTHOUGHTS ON MATERIAL LIFE found in Europe-were the fonduks or bazaars, such as the Bezestan of Istanbul. There was one peculiarity about Indian markets: every single village had its market, owing to the necessity of using the banyan trader as an intermediary to transform payments in kind received within the village community into money to pay either the Great Mogul or the lords of his court.
Characterized by self-sufficiency from the fifteenth to the eighteenth century, this sector remained essentially outside the exchange economy. Until the eighteenth century, and beyond, even the most developed areas of Europe were riddled with pockets that scarcely participated in the general life of the subcontinent and that in their isolation continued obstinately to exist on their own, almost entirely turned inward upon themselves. Now I would like to discuss those exchange relationships that I call both the market economy and capitalism.
Afterthoughts on Material Civilization and Capitalism (The Johns Hopkins Symposia in Comparative History) by Fernand Braudel
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